The Pteronura brasiliensis is a carnivorous mammal living in the waters of the Amazon. As late as 1906 there were reports of the wholesale capture of Indians who were enslaved in order to tap rubber, which was plentiful and commanded a high price on the world market but which was difficult to exploit because rubber trees were sparsely scattered over a huge area. What Animals Live In The Amazon River? The Amazon is one of Earth’s last refuges for jaguars, harpy eagles, and pink river dolphins, and it is home to sloths, black spider monkeys, and poison dart frogs. The Inia geoffrensis is endemic to the Amazon River basin where its three subspecies are found. Large cats, such as the jaguar and ocelot, have become rare, though pumas may be found in larger numbers in the Andean fringe of the basin. Among a host of other primate species are woolly monkeys, capuchin monkeys, titis, sakis, and marmosets. It contains one in 10 known species on Earth, 40,000 plant species, 3,000 freshwater fish species, and more than 370 types of reptiles. Some of the animals that live in the Amazon Rainforest include jaguars, sloths, river dolphins, macaws, anacondas, glass frogs, and poison dart frogs. Finally, there are known to be “undiscovered” Indian groups living in the Amazon region—i.e., those located so remotely that they have yet to be encountered or who have intentionally been left alone by outsiders. Morning and evening, the parrots and macaws fly to and from their … It feeds on small fish, crabs, and turtles. However, by the early 21st century the Indian population had dropped to fewer than 200,000, partly as a result of deforestation and commercial exploitation on their lands. Nail files are prepared using their bony scales. 2. Its tongue is processed to prepare traditional medicines. Myriads of mosquitoes may transmit diseases including malaria and yellow fever. Throughout the day the caciques quarrel in trees where their hanging nests swing by the dozens. Fireflies, stinging bees, hornets, wasps, beetles, cockroaches, cicadas, centipedes, scorpions, ticks, red bugs, and giant spiders are abundant. Countless bats inhabit the Amazonian night, including the blood-eating vampire bat. The Amazonian Indians early devised means of making the poisonous bitter cassava (manioc) edible; the end product, called farinha, became a food staple widely used today in much of tropical America. Those living north of the Amazon River speak languages of the Arawaks and Caribs, while those to the south speak predominantly Tupian languages. Transportation and energy infrastructure are essential for national and regional development, but when they are poorly planned, negative impacts can exceed short-term benefits. Among snakes the nonpoisonous boa constrictor and anaconda are notable for their size, the latter reaching lengths up to 30 feet (9 metres). They then coil around the preyâs body to constrict and suffocate it to death. Specimens that are over 1 m long and more than 40 kg in weight have been found. They wait for their prey just below the water surface and strikes out as soon as prey is detected. The pacu are also more dependent on plant material for their diet rather than flesh. 10 Unique Animals of the Amazon River Basin 01. The rivers and streams of the basin teem with life, and the forest canopy resonates with the cries of birds and monkeys and the whine of insects. They are very rarely seen and are found only in the Amazonian rivers around Iquitos. Hunting and population pressures threaten the survival of the Amazon River dolphin. These fish are also caught in game fishing and commercial fishing operations. These, and several other species of cats are present in Cuyabeno. Leaf-cutter ants (of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex) are prevalent, as are the ubiquitous small black flies known as piums in Brazil. Settlement by Europeans and mestizos (those of mixed Indian and European ancestry) did not occur to any appreciable degree until the 1870s and ’80s, when victims of severe droughts in northeastern Brazil began to move into Amazonia to profit from the rubber boom. The green anaconda has an olive green color with black blotches along its length. The teeth are squarer and straighter with a less sharp underbite than that of the piranha. Weighing up to 150 pounds, the capybara is the world's largest rodent. Tupian was used as a lingua franca between Europeans and Indians until the Portuguese became dominant in the 19th century; nonetheless, Brazilian Portuguese has been heavily influenced by Tupian. The major feature of the Amazon Basin is the vast Amazon rainforest, which accounts for about half of the world’s remaining rainforest area. Other common rodents are the paca, agouti, porcupine, and local species of squirrels, rats, and mice. Its larger mammals include the jaguar, ocelot, capybara and tapir… The most dangerous animals in the Amazon River are Red-Bellied Piranhas, Black caimans, Bull sharks, Payara (the Vampire fish), and Pacu, which is another terrifying fish living in the Amazonian river. It … 02. Smaller carnivores include coati, grisons, and weasels. Both low and high voltage electric discharges are generated by the fish. More than 1,400 species of mammals are found in the Amazon, the majority of which are species of bats and rodents. They are particularly agile and stealthy in the water and lurk in the Amazon River in wait of anything they can strike and overpower, which includes jaguars, caimans, turtles, wild pigs, deer and even humans. They feed on smaller fish, small terrestrial animals that move close to the shore, crustaceans, etc. The Amazon is also home to the semiaquatic capybara, the largest rodent in … The most amazing creatures Of Amazon river includes Payara,Piranha,Eel,Piraiba catfish and Black Caiman. The early European explorers of the Amazon provisioned themselves from the food supplies of the Indians they met and commandeered their canoes. Large numbers of Indians were taken into slavery, especially during organized raids (bandeiras) from the 16th to the 18th century; many others succumbed to such European diseases as influenza, measles, and smallpox. As the worldâs second-largest river, the Amazon River and its tributaries thrive with various forms of life. About 2,500 fish species have been found within the Amazon system, but many more remain unidentified. 1. What Are The 10 Largest Animals of The Amazon Rainforest of Ecuador The small, agile squirrel monkey, the most ubiquitous of Amazonia’s monkeys, is used in laboratories, as is the larger spider monkey. Amazon River Dolphin Species . Amazon (Pink) River Dolphin. Amazonian Indians perfected the use of quinine as a specific against malaria, extracted cocaine from the leaves of the coca tree, and collected the sap of the Brazilian rubber tree. While the Amazon River supports the dense and extensive Amazon rainforest that is the worldâs largest and most biodiverse tract of tropical rainforest, the river, and its branches are also home to a great diversity of aquatic and semi-aquatic fauna. River Animals (Animals in Their Habitats) [Galko, Francine] on Amazon.com. It is also found in the seasonally flooded savannas in the region. The Amazon Rainforest is also home to more than 10,000 species of mammals, 1,500 species of birds and the Amazon River and its tributaries have more than 3,000 species of fish. This fish has a long, cylindrical body and can grow to about 2 m. It is the largest Gymnotiformes species. Of the animals that live within the Amazon River itself, this pink freshwater dolphin is a crowd favorite. Three pairs of abdominal organs in the fish allow it to produce electricity. The green anaconda consumes a wide variety of prey including mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, etc. Some of the most notable residents of the Amazon River have been mentioned below: Melanosuchus niger is a large crocodilian that lives in the Amazon basinâs slow-moving rivers and lakes. The Amazon basin is exceedingly rich in birdlife. Black Caiman. Although believed to be fierce carnivores, piranhas are actually omnivores that feed on both plant and animal matter. The tapir, the white-lipped peccary, and several species of deer are native to the Amazon basin and much sought for their meat. This massive carnivore can grow up to 5 m in length and is the Amazon Riverâs largest predator. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. The more-elevated areas away from the rivers and their floodplains were—and still are in some of the more remote sectors—inhabited by small, widely dispersed, seminomadic tribes of Indians. Although fishing for Arapaima is heavily regulated, it is believed the fish has depleted or overexploited populations. By Oishimaya Sen Nag on July 18 2019 in Environment. They were skilled navigators in their dugout canoes and sailing rafts (jagandas), and they invented the blowgun and the hammock. For example, building new roads exposes previously inaccessible areas of forest to illegal and unsustainable logging. Running through the north of the rainforest is the Amazon River — a network of many hundreds of waterways that stretches 6,840km. What Animals Live In The Amazon Rainforest? The Amazon basin has long been relatively uninhabited. It is believed that anyone including humans or animals entering water infested by piranhas is bound to be attacked by these fish and consumed alive. The green anaconda, or Eunecetes murinus, is the largest and heaviest snake in the world, although it is not... Arapaima. The Tucuxi and the Boto Dolphin (the River Dolphin) The Amazon River Dolphin looks remarkably different from its more familiar, ocean-faring cousin. The Arapaima is dependent on surface air to breathe. The Arapaima fish is also known as the Pirarucu, is the second freshwater largest fish the world, after the Beluga Sturgeon (Huso huso).Its scientific name is Arapaima gigas.This fish can only be found wild in the Amazon River Basin in South America. The Amazon River … These fish can grow as long as 3 m and weigh around 90 kg. They are considered the most intelligent of the river … In the Amazon River basin, electric eels are found in the muddy river bottoms or stagnant waters where they feed on invertebrates, small mammals, and fish. The result was a complete breakdown of native life and a precipitous decrease in the Indian population; survivors fled into increasingly inaccessible sections of the Amazon basin. However, actual research mentions that such a belief is quite overrated. This snake can grow up to 5.21 m in length and weigh as much as 30 to 70 kg. (The term caboclo refers to people of mixed European and Indian ancestry in Brazil who live off the rivers and forests). Big Black Crocodile. River Animals (Animals in Their Habitats) More than one-third of all known species in the world live in the Amazon rainforest, a giant tropical forest and river basin with an area that stretches more than 5,400,000 square kilometres (2,100,000 sq mi). These pink river dolphins have a wide prey base including 53 species of fish, freshwater crabs, and river turtles. Fish represent a critical source of protein in the often meat-poor diet of the caboclo population. The Amazon River's 4,000-mile (6,437 km) journey begins high in the Andes. 1. Although they are slow on land, they can move fast in the water. It is found in 6 South American countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Pacu are often sold to home aquarium owners as "vegetarian piranhasâ. Although few human deaths have been associated with piranha attacks, the majority of such attacks result in minor cuts and injuries. These snakes inhabit the slow-moving streams, marshes, and swamps of the Amazon basin. Most fish are migratory, moving in great schools at spawning time. These fish... Electric Eel… Arapaima. The giant otter is active during the day. Among snakes the nonpoisonous boa constrictor and anaconda are notable for their size, the latter reaching lengths up to 30 feet (9 metres). Another wave of immigration began at the end of World War II, spurred by the rapid economic development of the region. The Amazon River (UK: / ˈ æ m ə z ən /, US: / ˈ æ m ə z ɒ n /; Spanish: Río Amazonas, Portuguese: Rio Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and the disputed longest river in the world.. Water buffalo, introduced from Southeast Asia as work and dairy cattle, predominate in the remote, swampy parts of Marajó Island. Pacu has also been introduced to other parts of the world. Some fish species have become locally threatened as the worldwide demand for frozen and dried fish has increased. One of the largest freshwater fish in the world—the arapaima, pirarucu, or paiche—can grow up to 15 feet in... Electric Eel. Most of the surviving Indian peoples live in the remote areas of the basin. The giant otter is the noisiest otter species and often exhibits territorial behavior. The Amazon is found in South America, spanning across Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. 3. At the time of the European conquest, the bottomlands and fringing upland surfaces of the Amazon River and its major tributaries supported relatively dense, sedentary populations of indigenous peoples who practiced intensive root-crop farming, supplemented by fishing and by hunting aquatic mammals and reptiles. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In the past few decades, the black caiman was almost on the verge of extinction due to indiscriminate hunting by humans for its skin. Pacu also grows larger than piranhas. Tropical fish of the Amazon are also some of the most desired for food and breeding and for use as aquarium specimens. Other animals of the forest include two varieties of arboreal sloths, three types of anteaters, armadillos, and iguanas, the last especially prized for their flesh. Today, it is labeled as âEndangeredâ by the IUCN. dvd one: 1-Piranha 2-Alligator Gar 3-European Maneater (wels catfish) 4-Amazon Assassins (arapaima) dvd two: 1-Amazon Flesh Eaters 2-Freshwater (Bull) Shark 3-Killer Catfish (giant goonch) Melanosuchus niger is a large crocodilian that lives in the Amazon basin’s slow-moving rivers and lakes. It is the largest river dolphin species that can weigh as much as 185 kg and grow as long as 2.5 m. These dolphins are noted for the pink color of adults which is more prominent in males. Iquitos, Manaus, and the Colombian port of Leticia are centres of these trades. The Most Dangerous Animals Of The Amazon Rainforest. The Arapaima is heavily exploited by humans. In 2014, scientists in Brazil published research in journal Plot One that river dolphins in the Araguaia river were a unique species, the Araguaian river dolphin. Among the more important commercial species are the pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), one of the world’s largest freshwater fish, and various giant catfish. Among the arthropods of the Amazon Rainforest are spiders (including orb weavers and tarantulas), scorpions, centipedes, millipedes, butterflies, wasps, rhinoceros beetles, ponerine ants, mantids, and walkingsticks. For example, you may be surprised to know they can swim. The Amazon Rainforest is home to a bewildering array of wildlife, including macaws, toucans, tyrant flycatchers, capybaras, tapirs, sloths, squirrel monkeys, red howler monkeys, jaguars, caimans, anacondas, tarantulas, leaf-cutter ants, scarlet ibis, and black skimmers. The small flesh-eating piranha generally feeds on other fish but may attack any animal or human that enters the water. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. As the name suggests, it is the longest member of the weasel family. They can grow up to six meters (20 feet) long, with bigger, heavier skulls than Nile crocodiles, and are the apex predator in … The Arapaima are gigantic carnivorous fish living in South Americaâs Amazon and Essequibo basins. Better known as the Caiman. Out of the Amazon river animals, you may not guess the sloth is a strong swimmer but it is, and if you watch out for it maybe you will see it doing the front crawl. Birds, mammals, fish, and reptiles constitute its food base. Like other mustelids, the giant otter is also highly social and lives in family groups of 3 to 8 members. And they also prey on people who are not lucky … A black caiman is basically an alligator on steroids. Electrophorus electricus is an electric fish that despite its name, is not an eel but a knifefish. 10 Amazing Amazon River Animals Anaconda. The teeth of the pacu are uncannily similar to that of humans. Morning and evening, the parrots and macaws fly to and from their feeding grounds, their brilliant plumage flashing in the sunlight and their raucous voices calling out their presence. All are threatened by overhunting, and the manatee has been listed as an endangered species. The remarkably rich and diverse plant and animal life of the basin’s rainforest is a resource of world importance. More than 8,000 species of insects alone have been collected and classified. Plants and Animals. Alligators are hunted for their skins, river turtles and their eggs are considered a delicacy, and the giant sea cow, or manatee, is sought for its flesh and for oil. Facts about Amazon River 6: Animals Diversity. The river and its basin are home to many unique species of animals, trees and plants. Of note are the howler monkeys, which make the selva resound with their morning and evening choruses. Most predators in Cuyabeno actually like water or at least tolerate it. Conservation strategies were then launched to protect the species. Alphabetical list of animals that live in the Amazon Rainforest. One of their arrow poisons, curare, has been used to treat a host of paralyses and spastic disorders, including multiple sclerosis. There are many myths about piranhas, such as the idea that they can skeletonize a cow in less than five minutes. All species are used for food and frequently are seen for sale in local markets. It primarily feeds on fish but turtles, snakes, small caimans, and crabs are also occasionally eaten. Green Anaconda Snake. Especially characteristic of the Amazon forest are several species of monkeys. Amazon River Basin is home to world’s largest species of wild animal,birds,reptiles and terrifying fish. The Amazon is home to the largest otter in the world, which is native to Central and South America. Also the region"s largest land herbivore, the tapir is easily recognized by its unusual proboscis, which functions like an elephant trunk. In the early 1990s the Indian population of the Amazon basin numbered about 600,000, of whom perhaps close to one-third lived in Brazil and the rest in the Oriente regions of the four Andean countries. Today, the black caiman population has recovered to some extent and it is listed as a Conservation Dependent species. Amazon River Dolphins are often seen swimming on their backs, this thought to be due to their ‘chubby cheeks’ which obstruct their downward vision. The following animals are unique to the Amazon river and its tributaries: The pink dolphin or bufeo (Inia geoffrensis) One of the most endangered species in the Amazon River is the pink dolphin or bufeo thought to be extinct more than twenty years ago. The former type of discharge is used by the electric eel to sense the environment while the latter type is used to detect and stun prey. The black caiman is the largest predator in the Amazon ecosystem, they feed on fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Nearly everyone is familiar with the name piranha. The Amazon Rainforest is home to 427 mammal species, 1,300 bird species, 378 species of reptiles, and more than 400 species of amphibians. Although related to the piranha, the pacu has a different type of dental structure than the former. It can reach a length of 450 centimeters (177.17 inches) and weigh up to 200 kilograms (440 lbs). All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com. The Amazon River Dolphin is a freshwater dolphin that lives in the rivers of the Amazon Rainforest. There is considerable debate within the scientific community as to whether the Amazon river dolphin is actually one, two, or potentially even three different species.. One in ten known species in the world lives in the Amazon Rainforest as do one in five known bird species. As the human population increases and the shotgun replaces the blowgun, hunting of the wild fauna has been mounting. Some of the predators include: Both the Jaguar, Panthera onca, and the Ocelot, Leopardus pardalis, like water rich forests; Jaguars are known to actually like swimming. These groups traditionally have relied predominantly on hunting large and small animals and on gathering wild fruits, berries, and nuts while practicing small-patch agriculture of low yield. Dolphins are very intelligent animals; the Amazon River Dolphin’s brain capacity is 40% larger than humans! At dusk, toucans cry a discordant plaint from the treetops and are joined by ground-dwelling tinamous and quail. The Arapaima are gigantic carnivorous fish living in South America’s Amazon and Essequibo basins. It is a group of freshwater fish living in the South American rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and floodplains including the Amazon River basin that is the subject of many horror tales and legends. Its body is pale pink, with an elongated neck that can be moved left and right, a long snout reminiscent of a beak, a rounded head, and a smaller dorsal fin. These fish are torpedo-shaped and have large blackish-green scales with a mineralized hard outer layer. Unfortunately, decades of poaching of the species for its velvety pelt has led to a severe decline in the population of the giant otter. The night air is filled with the cries of various species of nightjars. Hoatzins screech in noisy flocks from streamside brush, while solitary hawks and eagles scream from tree stumps. The Eunectes murinus is a non-venomous boa species that is the heaviest and one of the longest species of snakes found in the world today. Piranhas have one of the most powerful bites among all bony fishes. It can grow up to 1.7 m long. Parakeets, which are more common in the Amazon than sparrows are in the United States, fly around in great flocks. A Witoto family carries on the traditional culture that was once a way of life for more than 30 Witoto tribes of the western Amazon basin. The sides of the head usually exhibit orange-yellow striping. Electric eels have a dark gray-brown dorsal color and a yellow to orange colored abdomen. Crocodiles are predators, and this black caiman is not the type of animals to meet. Everywhere is heard the twittering of small birds, the sound of woodpeckers, and the guttural noises of such waterbirds as herons, cormorants, roseate spoonbills, and scarlet ibises. 7 Scary Animals in the Amazon . The river basin of Amazon is largest and most biodiverse region in the world and home to over half of the planet’s remaining rainforest along with largest collection of living plants and animal species. Males of this species are significantly longer and heavier than females. The Amazon basin is exceedingly rich in birdlife. Other animals include caiman, river turtles, river dolphins, and manatees. Pa… Advertising Learn about the Rapa Nui of Easter Island Most spectacular, however, are the hundreds of species of brilliantly coloured butterflies; sometimes thousands of butterflies gather in the afternoon on riverside sandbanks. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. To give a succinct overview of the complete fauna of Amazonia is as impossible as it is to adequately describe the great diversity of its flora; in part this is because many of the region’s species have yet to be identified. It lives along the Amazon River and the Pantanal and can reach lengths of up to 1.8 metres. The Amazon contains half of planet’s remaining tropical forests, 6,500km (4,039 mi) of rivers, and one in 10 of the world’s known species of plants and animals. 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